We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
The goal of any state is the longest possible existence. Countries achieve this in different ways - if earlier empires were forged by aggressive campaigns and the most severe discipline, today the people are given democratic freedoms.
As a result, countries exist for centuries until, for a number of reasons, they do not disintegrate or change their shape. They do not even have time to be noted for something in history, but it is worth remembering them for the sake of certain conclusions.
Fiume Republic, 1 year 109 days. Today Fiume is Croatian. And after the First World War for the Austro-Hungarian Fiume, a struggle unfolded between Italy and the young country of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. The issue was supposed to be resolved at the Paris Conference, but in the meantime, the poet Gabriele d'Annunzio, together with Italian nationalists, entered the city on September 12, 1919, driving out the troops of the British, French and Americans. D'Annunzio offered his country to annex the city, but Italy not only refused, but also, under pressure from international forces, staged a blockade of Fiume. Then a year later the city and its surroundings turned into the Republic of Fiume, an independent state. On September 8, a flag with the bold slogan "Who is against us?" Was raised over the city; the poet himself wrote the Constitution of the new state in verse. She became a mixture of anarchism, democracy and national-syndicalism, a kind of precursor to the Italian fascist. The laws were sometimes curious - it was assumed that there was a compulsory musical education. The economy of the republic was divided between corporations. On November 12, Italy and Yugoslavia signed the Rappal Treaty, according to which Fiume was recognized as just a free city. This did not suit D'Annunzio, who immediately declared war on Italy on behalf of the republic on December 3. But already on December 30, after the shelling of Fiume by the enemy's fleet, the city was surrendered - the republic ceased to exist.
Markov Republic, 243 days. During the 1905 Revolution, riots broke out in Russia. The unrest lasted until 1907, and the authorities did not always manage to extinguish the hotbeds of popular discontent and even the formation of some kind of structures. The village of Markovo was located 150 kilometers from Moscow. Here in the fall of 1905, a meeting was convened, which was called upon to make important decisions on the life of the region. Agronomist Zubrilin read out a 12-point demand, which was sent to Moscow. After heated debate, it was decided to proclaim its own republic, which happened on October 31st. Peasant Pyotr Burshin became the president. The new state refused to recognize the tsarist power, pay taxes and send recruits to the army. Soon the authorities of the republic demanded to overthrow the autocracy and convene a Constituent Assembly. Markovo's fame grew; the young country even helped neighboring strikers. Even a professor from Chicago made a request to help this republic. And in 1906, after the suppression of the main centers of resistance, the authorities finally began to work on Markovo. On July 18, 1906, the Cossacks entered the volost, the country's leadership was arrested and sent into exile. Despite the rapid fall of the republic, local residents continued to already passively resist the authorities.
Free State of Schwenten, 218 days. Emil Negermann, pastor of the small village of Schwenten with a predominantly German population, announced the creation of an independent state in 1919. During the Poznan Uprising in December 1918, almost the entire province fell under the rule of the rebels. The Germans fought fiercely for their lands. But after the German garrison was denied placement in the village, the local community decided to defend their village. So on January 6, 1919, the independent free state of Schwenten was created, which quickly reached an agreement and non-aggression with neighboring Polish villages. The state, which has access to the water, planned to create its own fleet in the future, for protection from the side of the lake. In the meantime, the army consisted of 120 German soldiers who fled here from the Polish uprising. Pastor Hegermann was declared President as well as Foreign Minister. But the economy was hard - the main production was brewing, which was not taxed. As a result, in the summer of 1919, the authorities of the independent country recognized that it could not exist in a sustainable manner. On August 10, 1919, a petition was filed to join Prussia.
Ezo Republic, 184 days. This state existed on the Japanese island of Hokkaido in 1868-1869. It is believed that this was the first republic in the history of Asia. And she appeared during the Boshin War. The shogun's supporters were defeated by the imperial troops and, together with the remnants of the fleet, fled to the northernmost of the major islands of the archipelago. Here on December 25, 1868, the country's first elections were held, which made former Admiral Enomoto Takeaki the president of the republic. The military captured the port of Hakodate and the surrounding areas, which made it possible to form a country with an area of 83 thousand square kilometers. The emperor of Japan, naturally, did not recognize the new state, especially since it turned out to be not at all peaceful. With the support of France, the islanders even tried to steal the battleship that the Americans had sent to Japan. Already in March 1869, the emperor sent a fleet to Ezo with a small seven thousandth army. During the Battle of Miyako, the Republic was defeated. The French advisers hastily left it, and on June 27, Ezo officially ceased to exist. Then the island was renamed Hokkaido. Interestingly, after serving his prison term, Takeaki held high state high posts, including the ambassador to Russia.
Parthenopean Republic, 142 days. When Napoleon conquered Egypt, King Ferdinand IV of Naples joined the anti-French coalition. Troops from Naples entered Rome occupied by the French, where they faced the revolutionary army. The city was taken, but after a counterattack, it was again abandoned. In panic, King Ferdinand fled to Palermo, while Naples was left to Prince Francesco Pignatelli, who immediately burned the fleet. On January 12, he signed a surrender to the French. But the Neapolitans did not want to give up. They fought bravely, but on January 23, the French entered Naples, announcing the creation of the Parthenopean Republic there. It was to be based on the principles of freedom, equality and brotherhood and supported by the forces of the French army. But the new government turned out to be dependent on the military, who demanded money. The republic did not have its own army, and the attempt to instill democratic values also failed. The Royalists, meanwhile, sent Cardinal Ruffo to Calabria, who revolted. He was supported by Admiral Nelson, who with his fleet approached Naples. On June 13, 1799, Ruffo entered Naples and killed many of the republic's supporters. On June 21, the country ceased to exist. The monarchy in Naples was restored, more than a hundred republicans were executed.
Hungarian Soviet Republic, 134 days. After the end of the First World War, great empires fell apart, on whose ruins, like mushrooms, new countries began to appear. In Hungary, power was seized by an active and radical Communist Party, which announced the creation of the Hungarian Soviet Republic on March 21, 1919. The new government announced the abolition of titles and privileges, separated the church from the state, guaranteed freedom of speech, free education. Industry, transport and housing, as well as commercial enterprises were nationalized. Immediately, the leader of the young country, Bela Kun, informed Lenin about the proletarian dictatorship of the proletariat in Hungary and offered to jointly oppose external enemies. But Russia was already dragged into the Civil War, supporting local communists only morally. The population first supported Bela Kun, because he promised to restore the pre-war borders of Hungary. But after the mass executions and the selection of grain from the peasants, the reputation of the authorities was shaken. Then the dictatorship decided to keep promises and return the lost lands. In May, the Hungarian army occupied part of Slovakia. But the Entente troops fought back, forcing the Red Army to surrender. On August 6, the Romanians entered Budapest, ending the existence of the Hungarian Soviet Republic. Many of her supporters were shot without trial or investigation.
Crimean People's Republic, 34 days. On December 13, 1917, the Tatars declared their independence in Bakhchisarai. It happened in a political vacuum that had developed at that time on the territory of the peninsula. The old government fell, and the new one was occupied by the outbreak of the Civil War. The Kurultai of the Crimean Tatars declared itself the parliament of the new country, the government was headed by Noman Chelebidzhikhan. The Islamic State announced the independence of the governing bodies from religion and the electoral rights of women. The plan was to make all citizens equal, even the Jews escaped persecution. The progressive republic allowed peasants and girls to study in schools. Relying on its own armed forces, the new government tried to occupy Crimea. But the attempt to seize Sevastopol failed. Moreover, local workers and sailors drove the Tatars out of Simferopol, which meant the end of the Crimean People's Republic.
Bavarian Soviet Republic, 27 days. Bavaria, a powerful and important German province, came under popular rule after the strike on November 7, 1918, when the German monarchy was overthrown. And on April 13, 1919, the Council of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies announced the creation of a new state. The government was headed by the socialist writer Ernst Toller, who at that time was only 25 years old. The Red Army immediately entered the battle to establish control over all of Bavaria. But on April 27, due to internal disagreements, the communists withdrew from the government of the new country. Toller himself, seeing the hopelessness of the situation, left his post and went to fight for the republic as a simple Red Army soldier. After a couple of days, the German army went on the offensive and entered Munich on May 1. The last time the government of the republic met for a meeting on May 3, and a couple of days later, even the resistance ceased.
Republic of Connacht, 12 days. Another name for this short-lived country is the Republic of Ireland. It appeared during the Irish uprising of 1798 in the province of Connaught. The United Irish movement was also supported by the French, who sent a detachment of several thousand people here, led by General Jean Humbert. On August 27, the United Army defeated the British and captured the northern part of the province. The president of the proclaimed republic was John Moore, a local resident. The union of freedom, equality and fraternity was supposed to be built on the basis of the French experience. And on September 8, a new battle took place. This time, the British turned out to be much more than the rebels. Humbert fought for freedom for only half an hour and quickly surrendered. The republic ceased to exist.
Carpathian Ukraine, less than a day. Shortly before the start of World War II, the autonomous region of the same name, which was part of Czechoslovakia, decided to declare its independence. As a result of the Munich Agreement in 1938, Czechoslovakia was essentially ceded to Germany. In this regard, the autonomy of the weakened state demanded more rights from it. On March 15, 1939, an independent country was proclaimed - Carpathian Ukraine. Its president was Augustin Voloshin, who first of all sent a telegram to Hitler with a request to protect the sovereignty of his country. But it was in those days that border skirmishes with Hungary led to its invasion of the region. Carpathian Ukraine was offered to lay down arms and peacefully become part of Hungary. Voloshin only replied that his country was peaceful and did not want to fight with anyone, but was ready to repulse the aggressor. Already on March 16, the Hungarian army captured Khust, and all of Transcarpathia was occupied by March 18. The new government did not last even a day. The Germans just threw up their hands, refusing to take the country under their protection. The fighters for independence continued partisan activities in the region for another month. And after World War II, the territory of the Carpathian Ukraine passed to the USSR, becoming the Transcarpathian region as part of Ukraine.