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Lightning is a giant electrical spark discharge in the atmosphere, usually manifested as a bright flash of light and an accompanying thunder. The electrical nature of lightning was disclosed in the studies of the American physicist B. Most often, lightning occurs in cumulonimbus clouds, then they are called thunderclouds; sometimes lightning is formed in stratus clouds, as well as during volcanic eruptions, tornadoes and dust storms.
Scientists classify lightning into three types:
1. Linear - lightning in the form of a winding line, from which many branches depart.
2. Blurry - lightning that has no contours and occurs in an instant flash.
3. Ball - the most dangerous type of lightning. It appears in the form of a fiery yellow-red ball, which is a clot of hot gas. It can change shape, thereby penetrating even into a narrow opening of the house. As a rule, it explodes with a characteristic crackle.
Lightning is attracted by tall objects, water, earth, metal. Therefore, it is not recommended to be near these conductors during a thunderstorm.
Lightning can kill a person or an animal. It really is. The thing is that lightning can have a very strong electric discharge, that is, it is nothing more than a voltage of several million volts with a current of hundreds of thousands of amperes! And everyone knows that you need to be very careful with electricity, as it is dangerous to human life and health.
During a thunderstorm, you need to hide under a tree. Misconception. Lightning, first of all, directs its action on tall objects, including trees. Therefore, you should not hide from a thunderstorm under trees, especially detached ones, this is fraught with sad consequences. Trees such as oak, pine, poplar, spruce are especially good at attracting lightning.
If a thunderstorm hits a field or steppe, death from lightning is guaranteed. In this case, the main thing is to follow a few simple rules:
1. Do not stand in full growth - because in the field a person will be considered the tallest object, and, therefore, will attract the attention of lightning.
2. It is necessary to take cover in the lowest place, be it a ditch, a ravine or a small hollow.
3. Do not lie down on wet ground, as the ground is an excellent conductor of current and therefore lightning can strike the soil. It will be better if the person just squats and wraps his arms around his knees, that is, assumes the pose of an embryo.
You cannot hide from a thunderstorm in a car, as the metal conducts current well. If a thunderstorm catches you on the way, you need to stop, close all windows and the top of the car (if it has an open top), lower the radio antenna, and most importantly, do not leave this shelter. In the case when the transport is open (bicycle, motorcycle), you must immediately stop and move away from the vehicle about thirty meters. Because otherwise there is a real danger of being struck by lightning.
At home, a thunderstorm is not dangerous! This statement will be true only if the person closes the windows, does not heat the stove, turns off the TV and other electrical appliances, and begins to stay away from other objects that can attract lightning. You should especially beware of lightning in country houses and dachas - the house must be grounded.
Do not use your mobile phone during a thunderstorm. What is true is true. This telephone device can have metal structures, and metal, as you know, is an excellent conductor of electricity. Therefore, there is no need to tempt fate, postpone the telephone conversation for the after-light time. In addition, it is not recommended to use an ordinary telephone, since lightning can pass through the telephone cable, thereby reaching the human ear without obstacles.
Lightning strikes can only occur during rain. In fact, lightning can also manifest itself at a distance of, for example, ten kilometers from the place where it is raining. Most likely, this is what caused the birth of such an expression as "Thunder from a clear sky". Therefore, do not rush and leave the shelter after the rain - the danger of lightning can still hover in the air as long as thunder is heard.
It is very dangerous to be on an airplane during a thunderstorm. In the old days, the danger of lightning striking a flying plane was great. Nowadays, progress has gone far ahead, and therefore modern aircraft have quite good protection against lightning strikes.
Lightning never strikes the same place again. Controversial statement. Lightning is quite capable of repeatedly striking a place it likes. Therefore, you should not hide under a tree that has taken on a lightning discharge - lightning can again "attach" to it.
Lightning can cure diseases. This is not an invented fact. There are a huge number of cases when a sick person who was struck by lightning was miraculously cured. In addition, there are cases when lightning "rewarded" a person with specific abilities. For example, a person could walk in light clothes in a cold season, or he had a phenomenal memory. However, it can also happen the other way around - if a person affected by lightning does not die, then there is a high probability of becoming disabled for him.
In most cases, men are killed by lightning. Oddly enough it sounds, but it really is. And even scientists cannot explain this phenomenon.